### Heat Exchanger Tube Plugging: An In-Depth Look at Types of Plugs and Plugging Steps

Heat exchangers are essential components in a wide range of industries, including power generation, oil and gas, HVAC, and more. Over time, these exchangers can develop leaks in their tubes, leading to inefficiencies, potential safety hazards, and costly downtime. To…

### What is Viscosity? Factors, Newton’s Law, and Importance of Viscosity in Various Industries

Viscosity refers to a property of fluids that characterizes their resistance to flow and determines their thickness. This property is determined by the internal friction within a fluid that acts to oppose the relative motion of its different layers. Fluids…

### Free Body Diagram: Definition, Purpose, Examples, Steps

A free body diagram (FBD) is a pictorial representation of an object and the forces acting on it. It is used to simplify and analyze the forces acting on a body in order to determine the net force and the…

### What is Tensile Strength? Definition, Significance, Factors, Measuring and Working.

Tensile strength is a measure of the maximum amount of tension a material can withstand before breaking or failing. It is typically measured in units of pounds per square inch (psi) or newtons per square meter (N/m^2). Materials with high…

### What is Pressure Drop? Piping Pressure Drop Equations and Calculation

Pressure drop refers to the decrease in pressure that occurs as fluid (such as water or air) flows through a pipe or other passage. This decrease in pressure can be caused by a variety of factors, including friction between the…

### Maximum Shear Stress Theory

Maximum shear stress theory, also known as Tresca’s criterion, is a failure theory for ductile materials that states that a material will fail when the maximum shear stress exceeds a certain value, known as the shear yield strength. This theory…

### Scaffolding Definition: Types, Parts, Design, Materials, and Hazards of Scaffolding

Scaffolding is a teaching method that involves providing students with a structure or framework for learning new information or skills. This structure can include things like examples, templates, or step-by-step instructions, and it is designed to help students understand and…

### Rockwell Hardness Test and Scale

The Rockwell hardness test is a widely used method for measuring the hardness of materials. It involves pressing a diamond or hard metal cone or ball into the surface of the material being tested and measuring the depth of the…

### Flange Bolt Torque Calculation and Pipe Flange Bolt Torque Chart

Flange bolt torque calculation is the process of determining the amount of torque that should be applied to the bolts of a flange connection in order to properly seal the joint and prevent leaks. This calculation takes into account several…

### What is DN and PN Number for Pipes? Pipe Class Rating vs PN Numbers

DN (diameter nominal) and PN (pressure nominal) are two common terms used to describe pipes in the European and international piping industry. DN is a dimensionless term used to indicate the size of a pipe. It is based on the…